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Swicofil Manual - Twist direction details

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Direction of twist and of winding for 
flat yarns and twisted yarns

Twist

This has two key elements:
a) The direction of the twist - see below twist orientation
b) The number of twist (turns) per meter - see below

Twist orientation

Z twist

When a twisted yarn is held vertically, the individual filaments are appearing in this case as the diagonal in the letter "Z". The same can apply if several yarns have been twisted together: their combined twist can again appear as the diagonal of the letter "Z".

S twist

When a twisted yarn is held vertically, the individual filaments are appearing in this case as the diagonal in the letter "S". The same can apply if several yarns have been twisted together: their combined twist can again appear as the diagonal of the letter "S".

A multiple twisted yarn is made from two single yarns, which are twisted in Z direction. The twisted yarn itself will be twisted in the S direction. The rotation of this twisted yarn is more or less a single yarn twist and the result is, that the fibres will once again lie parallel to the twist axis.

The possibility of variation lies in the amount of the spun fibres as well as in the amount of the twist rotation. The optimum characteristics of the products can be  brought out in this way. Stronger twists for weaving mills and softer ones for knitting mills are the general rule.

multiple twisted yarn

The sewing thread is normally made of three S-twisted single yarns, which are twisted together in the Z direction.

A tear-resistant thread with a round transverse section will thus be created.

s / Z twisted yarn (sewing thread)

The voile is produced from a spun fibre which is twisted in Z direction. The special thing is, that the twisted yarn is also twisted in the same direction, as the spun fibre (z direction). A hard twisted yarn is the result, with a tendency to curl. The fabric made from it, will be transparent, robust in grip. Curtains were often produced from it years ago. To get a higher transparency and also to produce luminous colours the finished twisted yarn has to be gassed. This means that the fibres which stick out are burnt off.

Very highly twisted yarns are called crÍpe twists.

z / Z twisted yarn (voile)

Fancy twists or nub yarns are twisted yarns which are made from different kinds of components such as nub, loop and other effects and are produced on special machines.  
Special constructions are multiple and multi stage twisted yarns, which are in praxis of little consequence due to the price factor.  

 

Number of turns

Stated in turns per meter (tpm. or T/m).

Nominal number of turns

The number of turns per meter (T/m) stated as a nominal value.

Effective number of turns

This is the nominal turns per meter (tpm. or T/m) with variations consistent with production processing.

Coefficient of twist

A measure of the level of twist of a yarn, determined by the multiplication of the turns per unit length by the square root of the linear density on a direct system, or the division of the turns per unit length by the square root to the count on an indirect system.

twist

Doubling

A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together in one operation. The initial twist and resultant doubling twist quoted.

Winding direction

The winding direction of yarns and twists on spools is marked with the small letters p and q. The take up of a yarn or twist about the head of the spool takes effect according to the direction of turns of the thread and the winding direction. For the purposes of this standard: The direction and twist per linear unit of flat yarns and twisted yarns.

p-winding

p winding

Viewed from the front end of the spool, the end of thread falls off to the left:
p-winding and S-twist has the tendency to open the yarn
p-winding and Z-twist has the tendency to close the yarn

q-winding

q winding

Viewed from the front end of the spool, the end of thread falls off to the right:
q-winding and S-twist has the tendency to close the yarn
q-winding and Z-twist has the tendency to open the yarns

 

 

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